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Water Ionizer Use & Care

Basics of Water Ionizer Use: 

This page contains basic instructions for using a water ionizer, tips for using alkaline and acidic waters, proper indoctrination into using ionized water, and care instructions for your water ionizer. 

Setting Up Your New Water Ionizer [or moving it]

Most water ionizers are relatively easy to set up. But this section has some tips to help your installation go smoothly. Even if you've owned a water ionizer for a long time, it is wise to read this section whenever you move it to avoid making mistakes.

  • Before installing a water ionizer or working with the quick-connect fittings, shut off the water source and open the water-flow valve on the water ionizer. Opening the valve with the water source shut off removes pressure from the line. Do this also before changing the filter. Pressure on the line can make the water line, filter, or other part hard to remove due to suction.
  • If you are not proficient with quick-connect fittings and flow control, you can cause a break in the line and a leak. To avoid this, read the following two sections and watch the short video.

Quick-Connect Fittings:

Most water ionizers use "quick-connect fittings" and even come with a plug in the water-inlet port's quick-connect fitting. This plug must be removed as one of the first steps in setup, and it's tricky, so here's some explanation for that.

Here's a little video to demonstrate removing a Hose or Plug from a Quick-Connect Fitting

How to Remove a Quick-Connect Fitting

  1. If the water ionizer has a water-flow valve, open it. Opening the valve removes pressure from the line, allowing the fitting to come out more easily.
  2. Set the water ionizer comfortably to control it while removing the fitting.
  3. Pull back on the little movable ring [by the hole of the quick-connect fitting] and keep holding it while doing the next step.
  4. With your other hand [or another person], pull out the hose [or, in this case, the plug].

Initial Setup: Inserting a Hose into a Quick-Connect Fitting

  1. If there is a water-flow valve on the water ionizer, open it. Opening the valve removes pressure from the line and makes the hose easier to insert.
  2. Ensure the hose is cut straight, not jagged, and with an excellent, 90-degree angle cut.
  3. Insert the hose into the quick-connect as far as you think it can go [push while bracing the back of the fitting with your other hand]
  4. Then, pull on the hose to make sure it feels seated.
  5. Finally, push once more (just to be sure it is well seated in the fitting). Leaking from the quick-connect fitting is rare and usually occurs because the tubing wasn't seated well enough.


Sometimes, leaks can occur with a water ionizer when the water inflow is too strong. Watch out for this. Most water ionizers can only handle a flow of 2 or less liters per minute. If your flowing water is too forceful or your water feed is directly connected to the plumbing, it can potentially spring a leak in the lines. The best way to handle this is with an External Flow-Control Shut-Off. With this shut-off, you can perfectly set up the water flow for your wants. (i.e., if you want the best ORP, a flow rate of about 1.5 liters per minute is best.) Plus, it protects your machine.

External Flow-Control Shut-Off


Having an external shut-off to your machine is very handy, and it's easy with the Union Shut Off. Most shut-offs also act as a flow-control knob. Here are some reasons why you may want this piece. 

  1. When you want to set the water flow to a very exact flow rate each time, you can turn the lever on the fitting until it is set to where you desire. Then leave it there. Afterward, you can turn on your water faucet full-on and let this piece regulate your flow. Doing this is very handy when you don't want to worry about manually setting the water flow rate each time.
  2. This valve does the trick if you want a backup system for your water ionizer's flow valve or to give it a break (make it last longer).
  3. This piece is handy if your water ionizer doesn't have a flow valve, but you want one.
  4. If you want to remove the water ionizer and take it on vacation but don't want to undo the diverter or hard-plumbed installation pieces, this valve is the answer.

How to Start Using Your New Water Ionizer

You should use a water ionizer sparingly when you first start using it. Give the water cell membranes a chance to moisten. The ionized water may test better once it's thoroughly moistened.

I recommend following these steps after every vacation, long-term storage, or any time you install a previously used water ionizer or even a new one. Use it slowly on the first start-up day if there's any doubt. Here are the suggested steps:

  • Day 1: Only pour [a specific amount of] filtered water through the water ionizer (there will be a button for this on the water ionizer). Allow it to flow until the water runs clear.
  • Day 2: Repeat Day 1 instructions.
  • Day 3: Flow one or two cups worth of [a specific type of] Level-1 ionized water. For the rest of the day, limit your use of the water ionizer to pour only one or two cups of ionized water at a time. This is to gradually reintroduce the water ionizer to regular use after a period of non-use. You have the flexibility to speed up this process if needed, but use your judgment. If you're certain the water ionizer was thoroughly dried out (i.e., there weren't any plugs on the various inlet/outlet ports), follow the above protocols without variation. This empowers you to make the best decision for your water ionizer's health.

Using Ionized Water

Your new ionizer produces three kinds of water:

  1. Of course, your water ionizer primarily produces alkaline water (many alkalinity levels, from about 7.5 to about 11 pH). Alkaline water is more complex to store than any other water. To maintain its pH and ORP (antioxidant) qualities, I suggest you learn how to store alkaline ionized water.
  2. The second type of water a water ionizer produces is filtered water (not ionized, usually neutral pH (it will have the same pH as your source water). For babies and toddlers, it's best to use filtered water, which is neither alkaline nor acidic. pH range 7-8. Also, when you are taking medication, filtered water is best.
  3. The third kind of water produced by water ionizers is acid water. When alkaline ionized water is poured from the top hose, acid water comes from the bottom. In reverse, if you set your ionizer on an acidic level, alkaline ionized water [which is drinkable, by the way] will come out of the bottom hose. Acidic water stores very well. You can keep it in an open container, tub, etc., and it will remain at the same pH as when you poured it.

How to Determine the True Alkaline PH Level of Your Ionized Water

Some water ionizers display or announce the pH level of each alkaline setting you pour. This is only an estimation, and it is not guaranteed to be the pH level you're pouring.

The only way to know that is to use the pH reagent testing drops you get with your water ionizer and do the following:

  1. Wait at least a week after starting your new water ionizer to ensure it's fully grooved.
  2. Pour the water at between 1.5 and 2 liters per minute.
  3. Start with Level 1 (or whatever that water ionizer calls that level)
  4. Pour a 1-tablespoon-sized sample into a shot glass or small glass.
  5. Drop a couple of drops of reagent into the sample and check it against the pH chart.
  6. It might be handy to take a picture of it, but otherwise, just record the pH (number value) of that level.
  7. Do this for every level.

Don't be surprised if your Enagic Kangen water machine registers 10.5 pH when the voice announces it's "Kangen water 9.0".

That's just the way it is. Your source water will ultimately determine the pH levels your water ionizer produces.

Some water ionizers allow you to program the machine to lower or raise the pH output of a particular level. If that's not possible, you can speed up or slow down the water flow rate or choose a different button on the machine.

No water ionizers can be exact about pH or ORP levels. But once you figure it out for your location, your numbers should be reliable and consistent. In other words, you shouldn't need to re-test very often.

However, municipal water does change somewhat in its mineral content from time to time. These changes are usually seasonal and related to rainfall and the water company's available water sources. You may want to use the above steps to re-test every few months.

Maximize the Instant Benefits of Drinking & Using Alkaline Ionized Water:

  • Alkaline ionized water at 8.5 pH to 9.5 or 10 pH will help neutralize the body's acidity and slightly alkalize it. It also assists in safely removing toxins from the body and wards off infections, cancer, and other invaders to restore it to its naturally healthy state. 
  • In addition to the health benefits of alkalizing your body, the negative ORP [oxidation reduction potential] of alkaline ionized water will provide the body with lots of easily absorbed antioxidants. Antioxidants are essential to prevent free-radical damage that would otherwise be caused by oxidation within the body. Directions: Start drinking at about 8.5 pH and slowly work your way up to 9.5 pH. For best results, don't rush it.
  • Vitamins: Feel free to drink whatever level of ionized water you drink while taking your vitamins. Micro-clustered, ionized alkaline water will assist in the best and fastest absorption of vitamins into your body.
  • Illness: If you're new to ionized water and get ill, reduce your pH until you feel normal again. Drink extra water at a reduced level to help flush whatever is from your system. 
  • Consider drinking more ionized water at your comfort level. This will help flush whatever is in your system faster.
  • Cleaning Things: A prevalent use of a water ionizer is cleaning oils or grease with it. Using high alkaline, such as 10.5 - 11.5 pH, ionized water will emulsify oils. Many people will use this alkaline water to soak their non-organic vegetables because soaking in it will naturally help remove the oily pesticides from the outer layer of the vegetable. It also has another great use of high alkaline water as a stain-remover. Over the years, I have successfully removed chocolate, blood, blueberry stains, peanut butter, pet stains, and other stains from clothing, carpets, tile grout, and furniture. Here are some other ideas for using the highest alkaline for cleaning [we'll cover the lowest acid-water later]:
    • You can pour a bowl of high alkaline and a second one of acidic water for cleaning fine washables [like stockings, silk scarves, etc.]. When you do this, I suggest letting it soak in the high alkaline for several minutes, then agitate and wring out the garments. Follow this up with a soak in the low acid water, which will act as a germicidal softener [removing any residual alkaline minerals] and freshen it up.
    • You can pour 2 - 4 gallons of high alkalinity in your laundry without detergent.
    • You can use highly alkaline, cleaning greasy areas like floors, stoves, and countertops.

When to Just Use Filtered Water

  • Medications: A neutral pH of 7.0 - 8.0 filtered water is perfect for taking medications. It is suggested that only filtered water is consumed for 20-30 minutes before and after taking meds. The chemical makeup of drugs and the predicted absorption rate into the body can be altered by consuming micro-clustered, ionized water with them. Rather than take a chance of messing up your doctor's plans, it's better to take the safe route described here.
  • Infants & Toddlers: Water ionizer use with infants and toddlers is not recommended other than using the filtered water setting. A neutral pH is perfect for babies. Give babies and toddlers "filtered" water, not ionized, until they are about two years old. After that, you can slowly introduce them to ionized water [i.e., over the next 2 - 3 years, use level 1, then do the same for level 2, etc.]. At about 9 or 10, a child can drink at the same level as an adult. If you notice pimples, this is a sign it's time to raise the child's alkalinity level and amount of ionized water.

The Uses for Acidic Water [Acid Water] [Beauty Water]

  • Skin and Hair: Acidic water at the 3 - 4 pH level is perfect for neutralizing the skin and hair [which should be about 5.5 pH, but because of alkaline soaps and shampoos you use, the skin and hair are usually found to be way off-balanced]. Acid water is used as a beauty treatment, too. [See more on this page: https://www.alkalinewaterplus.com/beauty-tips ]
  • Skin Toner and Conditioner: Your skin's acid mantle [outermost layer] is your body's first line of defense against bacterial, fungal, or viral infections. It is essential to maintain this acid mantle at about 5.5 pH. However, because of the nature of soaps [soaps typically have a high alkaline pH to emulsify and flush away oils], the acid mantle is often left at a too-high pH after bathing or showering. The consequences are a breakdown of the acid mantle, drying out of the skin, and roughness caused by a build-up of alkaline minerals left on the skin. Rinsing with acid water helps to remove the residual alkaline minerals and restore your skin to its perfect 5.5 pH level.
  • Hair Rinse: Shampoo is most often found at a high alkaline pH. A high pH solution applied to your hair will open up the hair cuticles [the cuticle is the outermost hair layer surrounding each hair shaft] and expose it to becoming dry and damaged. It is most beneficial to the health and beauty of your hair to close the hair cuticle. The cuticle opens with a high pH and closes with a low pH. When you rinse with water at a pH of about 3.0 to 4.0, this low-pH water combines with the high pH of your newly washed hair and restores it to its ideal pH of about 5.5. Beauty Secret: Hair with tightly closed cuticles has a smoothed, shiny, silky look and doesn't split at the ends.
  • Natural, Healthy Coolant: Acidic water can be placed in a spray bottle and brought to sports or other outdoor events in hot weather. When you set your bottle to mist, it cools your body like air conditioning. It's healthier for you to use acid water at about 5.5 pH in your mister rather than regular tap water because misting aims to cool yourself, not change your skin's pH. The proper pH of the skin is about 5.5 pH.
  • Natural Laundry Softener: Add acid water to your final rinse cycle of any laundry load. Using acid water to launder fine washables removes residual alkaline minerals from the clothing, brightens the colors, and naturally softens the laundry without using chemicals.
  • Plants: Acid water at 5 - 7 pH levels are excellent for watering plants. Plants love the purified micro-clustered water and love it to be slightly acidic. Flowering plants tend to have lower acidity than green-shade plants.
  • Germicidal Water: Many people use acid water at a pH of 2.5 - 4 to kill germs. The lower the pH, the faster the germs are killed, but even at a four pH, if you soak something for about a minute, it will kill the germs on it. Laboratory testing has proven that exposure to acidic water at a 2.5 pH and lower kills germs on contact.

Other Benefits of Drinking Alkaline Ionized Water

  • Taste: Many people feel alkaline ionized water tastes better than tap or bottled water.
  • Filtration: Water ionizers filter chemicals and toxins from water.
  • Faster Absorption: Water ionization splits large water clusters in half, making them smaller and more readily absorbable by your body. So, the water you drink will hydrate your cells far better than any other water can.
  • Detoxifying: Drinking ionized water helps you alkalize your body. It boosts the pH of your drinking water to reverse the effects of the acidic condition of your body [With most people, many toxic acidic wastes sit in the cells for long periods or forever, waiting to be eliminated. Ionized water helps to detoxify your body at a cellular level (alkaline pH buffers are essential in getting the acidic toxins out of your cells).
  • Reverse Aging: Because it helps your cells get rid of their toxins, combats free-radical damage, and prevents diseases, your cells can function correctly again up into your senior years. It doesn't stop aging altogether but slows it down and helps make the aging process a healthier, more vibrant experience.
  • Preventing and Reversing Disease: Research shows that diseases thrive in an acid environment. The modern fast-food diets we eat, sodas we drink, and our stressful lifestyles worsen that acid environment inside our bodies over time. To combat this, drinking alkaline water helps to buffer this acidity and neutralize our bodies, allowing our cells to be cleansed.
  • Natural Fast-Absorbing Antioxidant Water: Transforms water's ORP (oxygen reduction potential) and becomes an antioxidant.
  • Slimming Effect: Ionized water helps the fat-cell build-up of waste storage finally be released. It will not make you skinny, but it will assist you if that's what you're trying to do.
  • Cardio-Vascular Health: With its readily available antioxidants, Ionized water helps the arteries and veins stay healthy and retain their ability to slough off cholesterol.
  • Bowels: Helps the bowels to become cleansed and hydrated. Many diseases stem from dysfunctional bowels and intestines. Therefore, the cleansing effect of the ionized water on the bowels is a tremendous benefit to your overall health.

Introductory Instructions for Drinking Ionized Water:

  • Start at the lowest setting for alkalinity. Drink this for at least three days. Your body may go into what's called a detoxification phase (detox) because it has a lot of acidic wastes (toxic), which can now be released from your cells. If you take it slow at first, you'll feel less discomfort due to this detoxification process. Some detoxification symptoms are headaches, increased thirst, pimples, cold or allergy symptoms, aching in the lower back (kidney) area, and more. Some people never feel these detox symptoms.
  • If you don't feel any adverse effects after three days, move up to the next higher alkalinity level. With children, make every change in pH over months or years [depending on age], and watch them for any reactions whatsoever.
  • If you had symptoms, but they've subsided, and it's been a while, move up to the next level.
  • There's no need to rush. Once you reach about the 3rd level, stop moving up. That's the ordinary "drinking level" for alkaline ionized water. However, that's fine if you want to try a higher level. If you like the taste and don't feel any adverse effects after about three days, then it's the right level for you.

Flow-Rate is Important:

Paying attention to the flow rate when pouring your ionized water is essential. Too slow of a flow rate can cause the machine to overheat or power off while you're pouring. Too fast of a flow rate can reduce your pH & ORP, lessen the benefits, put excessive pressure into and through the machine, and reduce the contaminants the filters can remove. Filters always work best with about a 1.5 to 2 liters per minute flow rate. See if your machine has a screen that shows you the optimal flow rate and pay attention to it, or otherwise figure it out (i.e., it should take 15 seconds to fill an eight oz. cup optimally.)


  • You should watch your body for symptoms [aches/pains, allergies/colds, bowel/urinary irregularities, rash, itching, etc.] and immediately reduce your level of ionization for at least a few days [or indefinitely] until you can move up to that level without those symptoms. Your body is most likely detoxing too quickly; those toxins will re-infect you if you release them too quickly.
  • Children should not drink as much as adults. Their bodies are alkaline already. Give them their water at the lower levels until they are 8-10 years old unless they're already exhibiting allergy symptoms [in this case, their bodies are not as alkaline as they should be.] However, there can be other reasons for allergy symptoms, so if you ever boost your young child's alkaline level over 8.5 pH, you should watch their physical reactions and be ready to adjust their pH levels accordingly.

Temporary Storage of the Water Ionizer [for vacations]

If you have to store your water ionizer, try to do it so that the water cell won't dry out. 

If you don't use your water ionizer for less than a month or two, you don't have to store it. Just turn off the water source and unplug it. 

Sometimes, circumstances may lead to the water lines drying out. In such instances, following the same protocols as when you started using the machine is crucial. This will gradually moisten the water cell membranes and gaskets, preventing them from bursting. It's a responsible approach that doesn't harm your water ionizer. 

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Warning: We Do Not Recommend Commercial Use of Water Ionizers

Most water ionizers are made for residential use. Pouring more than a gallon of water at a time could overwork a machine. Indeed, more than 10 gallons per day would be considered excessive use. If you want to pour more than one gallon at a time, wait 10 or 20 minutes between pouring to cool off the machine. We recommend purchasing several machines or a commercial water ionizer if you have a public establishment with several gallons poured regularly.

Warning: We Do Not Recommend Excessive Use of the Strongest Power-Level of Any Water Ionizer

Most water ionizers have several power levels: Levels 1, 2, 3, and 4. Sometimes, they are called by other names, such as 9 and 9.5, but this is another way of simply naming a power level for the machine. However it's named, we recommend sparingly using the most powerful level. I usually stick with the second-strongest level for my drinking water and then reserve the most substantial level for the rare times I want the strongest ionization (usually just a few times a year to fill my strong acidic water bottles.) Over-use of the highest level of a water ionizer can prematurely wear out the machine, so we do not recommend it.

Warning: You Must Prevent Roach Infestations

A roach infestation could void your warranty, so pay attention to this if you live in a city area (or some other location that is at risk of being plagued with roaches from time to time.) 

Roaches are attracted to warmth, moisture, and electronics. So, water ionizers, like all other electronic equipment, are at risk of roach infestation. The best way to control this in cities (where roach problems sometimes plague people) is to use Contact roach trays and put one or two immediately under or behind each piece of electronic equipment. Also, never use sprays because that would spoil the trays. The scent of sprays will repel roaches from eating the bait. Once a roach eats the bait and returns to the nest (roaches are cannibals'), the others are eaten in about 10-20 days. This Combat poison is spread to all of the nest this way, and it wipes it out.

If your equipment gets infested, I suggest unplugging it immediately and placing it in a large trash bag with several Combat trays. Seal the bag to be as airtight as possible. Wait 10 to 20 days. Isolating your machine like this should save the equipment unless you let the situation go on too long and there is irreparable electrical damage.

How Much Water Should You Drink Per Day?

It would help to drink at least 1 ounce of ionized water times half your body weight. That would mean, if you weighed 150 lbs, you'd drink 70 ounces daily (8 or 9 cups) of ionized water or more. However, drinking up to one gallon of ionized water daily is even better for optimum results.

Questions and Answers

Question: How do you fine-tune a water ionizer to your desired pH levels?

Answer: Many alkaline levels, spanning from about 7.5 to about 11.5. You can increase alkalinity by slowing down the water flow at any level or increasing the level selected. Then, when you move up to the next level, you can use a faster flow at first, then slow it down for increased alkalinity. Every water source is different, so I can only tell you what pH you'll get at any level if you test it. There is a pH test kit that comes with every ionizer. You can use this to test the ionized water at various levels until you know what to expect at the different levels at various water flow rates. After that, I suggest monthly testing to ensure your ionizer performs appropriately.

Question: Should I start with a portable one to see if it helps me?

Answer: I recommend buying a regular water ionizer because the ORP will be much better than a portable one, but I don't think it's a bad idea at all to purchase a portable one such as the AlkalinePlus PH Pitcher, which is one of the best portable water ionizers I've ever tested. A portable ionizer won't offer the benefits of a regular one, but the AlkalinePlus Pitcher comes closest.

Question: How much alkaline water should one drink?

Answer: Drink as much as you can. I drink three quarts to a gallon every day. Sometimes, I even drink more. Thirst is not always the best test of whether or not you need water. The older a person gets, the less able they are to judge their hydration needs properly. They think they're not thirsty, so they don't drink. I've seen this in both my parents as they grew older. It's easy to get into a habit of dehydration and then forget to drink. A better test would be if you had any congestion, sinus problems, headache, or constipation *** it's time to drink more water! If all you can drink at first is a quart a day, then do that. But try to work up to a bare minimum of 1/2 ounce per pound of body weight as a general rule of thumb. And then drink more if you can, little by little, every day till you feel perfect in every way.

Question: How much time does the body need to get used to the change to higher-pH water?

Answer: Every "body" is different, so I always advise people to learn to observe how their bodies are doing. If it's doing well, move up a level. Some people do this fast [every couple of days], and some slowly. I was quick myself at first, but when I hit level three, I had some urinary symptoms, so I moved back to level two. It took me two years to go up to level 3. I've heard of people moving up to level 4, but their source water was more neutral than mine, and their ionized water at level 4 was about the pH mine is for level 3. So, your source water does have something to do with it, and your diet has a role in it, too.

Question: How do you watch your body for symptoms while raising your pH level?

Answer: Symptoms are things that need to be corrected. Symptoms include pains, aches, rashes, congestion, constipation, diarrhea, and colds. When you increase your body's alkaline, you allow toxins to be released from your cells and enter the bloodstream. Toxins are best released slowly. Also, the various organs in your body need different pH levels. For instance, your skin needs acidic [around 5.5 - 6.5], and your kidneys/urinary tract needs a slightly acidic pH. Your body's alkalinity will only rise so much before your acid-loving organs protest the changes. It is a gradual process to alkalize your body, so don't rush it.

Question: Do you need to do any particular cleaning of a water ionizer?

Answer: Not necessarily. Test the water ionizer, and if it tests okay and the flow rate of water is still good, then you're okay. You only need to do a vinegar or citric acid wash if the flow rate slows down or the ionization levels drop below what they should be. https://www.alkalinewaterplus.com/what-to-do-about-hardness-in-your-water/

Question: What happens when you boil the ionized water?

Answer: When you boil ionized water, it loses its alkalinity and can turn acidic. It also loses its ORP. Even heating the water to under boiling point does some of this. That said, hospitals in Korea and Japan use alkaline ionized water to cook for pregnant women, people with diabetes, and other ailments. They have noticed a difference in using this water for cooking, even though it loses its properties.

Question: What happens if you freeze ionized water?

Answer: If you freeze ionized water, you can't measure the pH and ORP until thawed. It's thawed enough to test the pH and ORP but has lost much of the pH and ORP [but not all]. In our house, we fill the ice cube trays with ionized water and then put them in the water if we want it cold.

Question: What happens if you add lemon, lime, Crystal Lite, Cool-Aid, etc. to ionized water?

Answer: Alkaline ionized water will turn neutral or even acidic if you add flavor aids. Lemons are good because they have an "alkaline ash" [which is the byproduct of digestion]. Therefore, I always suggest drinking ionized water plain. Still, of all the drink mixes listed above, I mean a light natural lemon-aid or green tea [unheated], and if sweetened, then use something natural, like Stevia. For some reason, adding alcohol to ionized water doesn't alter the pH or ORP of it.

Question: Which container is best for storing ionized water?

Answer: The best answer is posted in How to Store Ionized Water. Insulated medical-grade stainless steel vacuum bottles store the pH/ORP better. It is also best to use small containers [about 24 oz. or less] rather than huge gallon-sized ones. Using containers filled with ionized water and no air gap is best. This way, you'll benefit from nearly the same pH and ORP as when your ionized water was first poured.

Question: Are small white particles in ionized water or a white film on the inside of the glass or bottle normal?

Answer: Provided it's not excessive, this is normal. Ionization will un-dissolve some of the dissolved calcium that's in your water. When undissolved, it appears as sediment and will sink to the bottom of the glass or stick to the sides of the glass or bottle over time. It is harmless calcium carbonate. The amount of calcium in your water does not replace the need for calcium supplementation because the amount is insignificant. If the amount of calcium deposits becomes excessive, it may be time to clean your machine. See my post on how to do a vinegar wash.

Related Reading:

If you are looking for more information after reading this page, I invite you to visit these other pages related to using a water ionizer. 

[Note: All pH and ORP levels are approximate depending on the local water supply.]